Educational Forum with Clinical Studies Current Science and Research

December 14, 2010


Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 7:56 am

Bok Y. Lee, MD, FACS Alfred J. Koonin, M.B., Ch, B., Ph.D., FRCS Keith Wendell, Ph.D.
John Hillard, RN

Otto Van Guericke, who rotated a ball of solidified sulfur to create static electricity in 1672, invented the first electrical instrument made by man. Amber was the first material used to generate electricity, which could be generated by rubbing it with the hands. Static electricity machines were the first instruments and, with the machine age by the 18th century, were powerful enough to destroy superficial tissue and be used for cauterization. Ultraviolet ray machines invented by Strong in 1897 were still in use in 1937.Direct current grew rapidly with the invention of the battery. The electric cell pile allowed the generation of higher voltages than the usual two volts by connecting them in series. This reaction then provided a convenient and readily available source of Direct Current. Salandier is credited as the first to apply direct current to acupuncture needles and later moist conductive pads were introduced. Galvanic is another word used to describe direct current therapy. Today’s galvanic instruments are a direct descendant of this early invention, practically without change.With the discovery of Alternating Current by Tesla, and the invention of the Vacuum Tube by Edison and improved by DeForrest, tubes were universally used. House mains were used to eliminate the nuisance of recharging or replacing batteries for the energy gobbling appetites of the vacuum tubes.The limitation of tubes as far as frequencies were concerned, was primarily due to the matching transformers, which, although they did well in the audible human range of 20 to 20,000 cycles per second, did not produce frequencies below 10 Hertz because the output could not be coupled easily to the patient. With the advent of the rediscovery of solid-state technology, the transistor was capable of bridging the gap.Frequency, which is the rate of occurrence of repetition, is used in physical therapy to describe the number of cycles per second of the output wave. Since electrical waves travel at approximately 186,000 miles or so per second, the length of each wave is calculated by dividing the repetitions per second into the known speed. In honor of Hertz, a German scientist who discovered and measured radio waves, cycles per second are termed “Hertz” or in abbreviation Hz. Clinical research has shown that the frequencies in the Ultra-low frequency range of 0.1 and 0.3 Hz, seem to have longer lasting effects, although relief is not as rapid as in higher frequencies of 10 to 100 Hz.The initials A.C. mean alternating current. Most physical therapy equipment use electrical waves that are alternating positive then negative in each half cycle to complete one complete wave. Whereas Direct Current flows in one direction only, A.C. flows in alternating directions in accordance with it being in the negative or positive phase. The upper half is considered the positive cycle, whereas the lower portion is the negative cycle. Radio waves overlap into frequencies in the audible range, starting as low as 5,000 Hz. Above 1,000 Hz, we do not find physical therapy using any frequencies until 2,000,000 Hertz (2 Megahertz) where interferential frequencies of 2,000 to 4,000 Hz are not considered as therapeutic since only the lower 0 to 200 Hz have been touted for therapy. Ultrasound instruments use this to vibrate their sound heads.The resulting output is mechanical, but not electrical, so that a nonelectrical conductive substance can be employed. The next higher frequency is the short wave diathermy at 27 Megahertz. Originally these were equipped with large insulated rubber pads, however it was possible to burn the patient, so it is wise to wrap them in several layers of heavy towels for additional insulation. Most present units employ an isolating drum inductor to reduce this hazard. Outputs from these units are usually 300 to 500 watts, so care is advised on their application. The cords leading to these pads are usually cut to match the wavelength and are “hot” with Radio Frequency (RF). They also should be carefully routed to avoid painful RF burns. A safer form of diathermy is the Microwave or Radar type. At frequencies of 2,450 MHz, the wavelength is so short that a reflector type antenna can be used to direct the energy to the area desired. Most units have outputs of 100 watts, and depend upon increased circulation rather than heating.Frequencies higher are in the heat lamps, infrared and colors of the visiblelight ranges. Medical laser, X rays and cosmic rays complete the high end of the spectrum. The healing effects of electricity have always been ill understood. However, with the advent of subatomic particle physics and the electron theory of electrical current, explanations of electricity acting as an antioxidant become more likely.In order to understand how electrical currents can function as an antioxidant, the formation and effects of free radicals and their interaction with antioxidants needs to be understood.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

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