Educational Forum with Clinical Studies Current Science and Research

January 24, 2011

Exercise and arthritis. The hematology of inactivity.Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 10:02 pm

Arthritis tends to promote inactivity, and inactivity tends to promote an unhealthful constellation of blood abnormalities that increases the risk of heart attack and stroke. The hematology of inactivity comprises the following: low plasma volume, high hematocrit, high plasma fibrinogen, elevated blood viscosity, increased platelet aggregability, and diminished fibrinolysis. Regular exercise reverses all these adverse blood changes and, thereby, helps prevent heart attack and stroke. Simply put, exercise “improves” the blood, making it flow more easily and clot less readily. This “healthy hematology of exercisers” is one more reason why prudent exercise is as vital for patients with arthritis as it is for the rest of us.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

nduction of microcurrents in critically ill patients in magnetic resonance systems. Xanya Sofra Weiss Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 9:48 pm

Measurements and Main Results: Voltage generated by saline 0.9% flowing through a magnetic field and distribution of current from a catheter tip within a sheep heart model were measured in a 0.15 Tesla MRI system. Resistance of loops formed by pacing wires, a pacing electrode, and a thermistor wire were measured in saline 0.9%. Effects of rapidly changing magnetic fields and the movement of the beating heart on epicardial pacing wires were calculated theoretically. A flow of 200 mL/min of saline 0.9% induced a current of 0.1 microampere (uA) (at 0.15 Tesla). From magnetic resonance images we derived a current density of -0.004 [mu]A/mm2 (at 0.15 Tesla). Internal resistance of pacing catheters and thermistor wires was >1 megaohm (M[OMEGA]). The maximum currents calculated (for a higher field strength of 1.5 Tesla) in a circuit formed by epicardial pacing wires were 80 [mu]A, induced by the beating heart moving the wires through the magnetic field and 46 [mu]A, induced by the rapidly changing magnetic fields.

Conclusions: Current generated by flow of conducting fluid should be safe. Pacing catheters and thermistor wires should be safe if well insulated and disconnected from external electric connections. However, current induced in epicardial pacing wires may be a hazard, and precautions should be taken. External wire tips must be separated, insulated, and coiled to lie along the axis of the magnetic field. Electrocar-diography is required, and defibrillation equipment should be available.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

APPARATUS FOR PERFORMING MICROCURRENT ELECTROTHERAPY. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 9:38 pm

An electrotherapy method and apparatus for healing injuries and tissue diseases to the human or animal body is disclosed. Particularly, the electrotherapy method disclosed herein comprises delivering a current under various conditions, such as, applying microcurrents ranging from 4 miliamperes to 1 femtoamperes, applying an laternating current with a frequency in the range of .00065 Hz to .00085 Hz, utilizing large surface area electrodes to achieve to low current densities of less than 5 microamperes per square inch. The apparatus of the present invention includes a plurality of electrode wraps for applying said electrotherapy method to a body. Each electrode wrap includes a first layer wrap of water absorptive material and a second layer wrap of moderately conductive material. Each electrode wrap is placed on a portion of the body, including, without limitation, arms, legs, hands, feet and torso. The method and apparatus of the present invention are useful in treating wounds, ulcerations, spinal cord injuries, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, nervous system abnormalities, scar tissue and age lines.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

A redox-sensitive peroxiredoxin that is important for longevity has tissue- and stress-specific roles in stress resistance. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 9:31 pm

Oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in many diseases and in aging. Removal of ROS by antioxidant enzymes plays an important part in limiting this damage. For instance, peroxiredoxins (Prx) are conserved, abundant, thioredoxin peroxidase enzymes that function as tumor suppressors. In addition to detoxifying peroxides, studies in single-cell systems have revealed that Prx act as chaperones and redox sensors. However, it is unknown in what manner the different activities of Prx influence stress resistance or longevity in the context of whole animals. Here, we reveal three distinct roles for the 2-Cys Prx, PRDX-2, in the stress resistance of the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans. (i) The thioredoxin peroxidase activity of PRDX-2 protects against hydrogen peroxide. (ii) Consistent with a chaperone activity for hyperoxidized PRDX-2, peroxide-induced oxidation of PRDX-2 increases resistance to heat stress. (iii) Unexpectedly, loss of PRDX-2 increases the resistance of C. elegans to some oxidative stress-causing agents, such as arsenite, apparently through a signaling mechanism that increases the levels of other antioxidants and phase II detoxification enzymes. Despite their increased resistance to some forms of oxidative stress, prdx-2 mutants are short-lived. Moreover, intestinal expression of PRDX-2 accounts for its role in detoxification of exogenous peroxide, but not its influence on either arsenite resistance or longevity, suggesting that PRDX-2 may promote longevity and protect against environmental stress through different mechanisms. Together the data reveal that in metazoans Prx act through multiple biochemical activities, and have tissue-specific functions in stress resistance and longevity.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

January 23, 2011

Melatonin in the skin: synthesis, metabolism and functions. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 6:21 pm

Andrzej Slominski, Desmond J. Tobin, Michal A. Zmijewski, Jacobo Wortsman and Ralf Paus

Melatonin, a ubiquitous methoxyindole, is produced by and metabolized in the skin. Melatonin affects skin functions and structures through actions mediated by cell-surface and putative-nuclear receptors expressed in skin cells. Melatonin has both receptor-dependent and receptor-independent effects that protect against oxidative stress and can attenuate ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. The widespread expression and pleiotropic activity of the cutaneous melatoninergic system provides for a high level of cell-specific selectivity. Moreover, intra-, auto- and para-crine mechanisms equip this system with exquisite functional selectivity. The properties of endogenous melatonin suggest that this molecule is an important effector of stress responses in the skin. In this way, melatonin
actions may counteract or buffer both environmental and endogenous stressors to maintain skin integrity.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

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