Educational Forum with Clinical Studies Current Science and Research

September 29, 2010

Induction of microcurrents in critically ill patients in magnetic resonance systems. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 7:35 am

Measurements and Main Results: Voltage generated by saline 0.9% flowing through a magnetic field and distribution of current from a catheter tip within a sheep heart model were measured in a 0.15 Tesla MRI system. Resistance of loops formed by pacing wires, a pacing electrode, and a thermistor wire were measured in saline 0.9%. Effects of rapidly changing magnetic fields and the movement of the beating heart on epicardial pacing wires were calculated theoretically. A flow of 200 mL/min of saline 0.9% induced a current of 0.1 microampere (uA) (at 0.15 Tesla). From magnetic resonance images we derived a current density of -0.004 [mu]A/mm2 (at 0.15 Tesla). Internal resistance of pacing catheters and thermistor wires was >1 megaohm (M[OMEGA]). The maximum currents calculated (for a higher field strength of 1.5 Tesla) in a circuit formed by epicardial pacing wires were 80 [mu]A, induced by the beating heart moving the wires through the magnetic field and 46 [mu]A, induced by the rapidly changing magnetic fields.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Effect of Microcurrent Stimulation on Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness: A Double-Blind Comparison. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 7:32 am

Jennifer D. Allen, MEd, ATC, Carl G. Mattacola, PhD, ATC, and David H. Perrin, PhD, ATC; 1999

To examine the efficacy of microcurrent electrical neuromuscular stimulation (MENS) treatment on pain and loss of range of motion (ROM) associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS).
Design and Setting:
We assigned subjects to 1 of 2 groups. Group 1 received treatment with microcurrent stimulation (200 μA, 30 Hz, for 10 minutes, then 100 μA, 0.3 Hz, for 10 minutes) 24, 48, and 72 hours after DOMS induction. Group 2 served as a sham group and was treated using a machine altered by the manufacturer so that no current could flow through the electrodes.
DOMS was induced in the biceps brachii of the nondominant arm of 18 subjects (3 males, 15 females: age = 20.33 ± 2.3 years, ht = 170.81 ± 7.3 cm, wt = 69.61 ± 13.1 kg). Dominance was defined as the arm used by the subject to throw a ball.
Subjective pain and active elbow extension ROM were evaluated before and after treatment each day. Two methods were used to assess pain: constant pressure using a weighted Orthoplast sphere and full elbow extension to the limit of pain tolerance. Subjective pain was measured with a graphic rating scale and active elbow extension ROM using a standard, plastic, double-armed goniometer. Three repeated-measures ANOVAs (between-subjects variable was group, within- subjects variables were day and test) were used to assess ROM and pain scores for the 2 groups.
We found no significant difference in the measurement of subjective pain scores or elbow extension ROM when the MENS group was compared with the sham group.
Our results indicate that the MENS treatment, within the parameters used for this experiment, was not effective in reducing the pain or loss of ROM associated with delayed-onset muscle soreness.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Spatial-Temporal Structures of Human Alpha Rh ythms: Theory, Microcurrent Sources, Multiscale Measurements, and Global Binding of Local Networks. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 7:27 am

Paul L. Nunez, Brett M. Wingeier, and Richard B. Silberstein; 2001

Abstract: A theoretical framework supporting experimental measures of dynamic properties of human
EEG is proposed with emphasis on distinct alpha rhythms. Robust relationships between measured
dynamics and cognitive or behavioral conditions are reviewed, and proposed physiological bases for EEG
at cellular levels are considered. Classical EEG data are interpreted in the context of a conceptual
framework that distinguishes between locally and globally dominated dynamic processes, as estimated
with coherence or other measures of phase synchronization. Macroscopic (scalp) potentials generated by
cortical current sources are described at three spatial scales, taking advantage of the columnar structure
of neocortex. NewEEG data demonstrate that both globally coherent and locally dominated behavior can
occur within the alpha band, depending on narrowband frequency, spatial measurement scale, and brain
state. Quasi-stable alpha phase structures consistent with global standing waves are observed. At the
same time, alpha and theta phase locking between cortical regions during mental calculations is demonstrated,
consistent with neural network formation. The brain-binding problemis considered in the context
of EEG dynamic behavior that generally exhibits both of these local and global aspects. But specific
experimental designs and data analysis methods may severely bias physiological interpretations in either
local or global directions.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Melatonin Formation in Pineal Gland from Rats with Hexachlorobenzene Experimental Porphyria. Xanya Sofra Weiss

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 7:25 am

Elena B. C. Llambías Marta B. Mazzetti Sandra M. Lelli Carmen Aldonatti

Hexachlorobenzene produces an experimental hepatic por-phyria in rats, which is similar to human porphyria cutanea tarda, with hyperpigmentation as one of its characteristic features. Alterations in tryptophan metabolism have been previously observed in this chronic porphyria. Melatonin formation from tryptophan via serotonin shows diurnal rhythmicity in the pineal gland, and higher values are observed during the dark phase of an imposed light-dark cycle. The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of tryptophan and its metabolites in pineal gland of normal and hexachlorobenzene-treated rats in order to find alterations potentially related to porphyria cutanea tarda. Results show that in animals with this experimental porphyria some tryptophan metabolite levels (serotonin and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid) increase only during the light period, whereas tryptophan content remained equal to the controls. Hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase activity also increases by light in pineal gland from hexachlorobenzene-treated rats. On the other hand, tryptophan is converted to melatonin in the dark period, but this route is not exacerbated in hexachloroben-zene porphyria. The relevance of these alterations is discussed in relation to hyperpigmentation, neoplastic and oxidative stress processes associated with this porphyria.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

September 9, 2010

Cytokine changes with microcurrent treatment of fibromyalgia associated with cervical spine trauma

Filed under: Xanya Sofra Weiss — Tags: — Dr. Xanya @ 3:36 am

C.McMakin, W.Gregory, T.Phillips

Objective: Patients who have fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) associated with cervical spine trauma have distinct pain descriptors and physical examination findings. Currently, there is no effective treatment for fibromyalgia. Microamperage current provides physiologic current flow and has been used in the treatment of some pain syndromes. In this uncontrolled retrospective analysis of patients receiving microcurrent treatment for fibromyalgia following cervical spine trauma, subjective pain scores are utilized as a primary outcomes measure. Accompanying changes in inflammatory cytokines are examined in a subgroup of the same patient population to test the hypothesis that microcurrent treatment produces substantial measurable objective and subjective outcomes supporting the efficacy of this treatment.

Methods: A total of 54 consecutive patients meeting the ACR diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia were treated with microamperage current. Blood samples on a subset of six patients were analyzed using a recycling immunoaffinity chromatography system to identify objective changes accompanying subjective pain scores.

Results: Five patients did not tolerate treatment. The remaining 49 patients reported reduction in pain on a 10-point visual analog scale (VAS) from an average baseline score of 7.3±1.2 to 1.3±1.1 with the first treatment. (P<0.0001P<0.0001). Thirty-one patients reported symptomatic relief from fibromyalgia following an average of eight treatments. Median time to improvement was 2 months and the actuarial recovery curve reached 100% at 4.5 months. Interleukin-1, Interleukin-6 and substance P levels were all reduced from 330 to 80pg/ml (P=0.004P=0.004), from 239 to 76pg/ml (P=0.0008P=0.0008), and from 180 to 54pg/ml (P=0.0001P=0.0001), respectively, in the first 90-min treatment. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-αα was also reduced from 305 to 78pg/ml (P=0.002P=0.002). During the same time period, beta-endorphin and cortisol both increased from an average of 8.2 to 71.1pg/ml (P=0.003P=0.003), and 14.7 to 105.3μg/ml (P=0.03P=0.03), respectively.

Conclusion: In a retrospective study based on analysis of subjective VAS pain scores for 54 patients, symptoms of fibromyalgia following cervical spine trauma were successfully treated with microamperage current. In a subgroup of the same patients, subjective pain improvement scores were accompanied by substantial reduction in serum levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-αα, and the neuropeptide substance P. Beta-endorphin release and increases in serum cortisol were also observed in these patients during the same treatment period. The subjective outcomes scores in conjunction with biological markers for pain and pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in response to this treatment protocol are important preliminary findings. Based on the observations reported in this analysis, controlled prospective clinical studies to evaluate the clinical efficacy of microcurrent treatment of FMS associated with cervical spine trauma are warranted.

Xanya Sofra Weiss

Xanya Sofra Weiss

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